Newsletter – October 2021

On 23-24 September 2021 Cardiff University will host the Future of Journalism Conference: Overcoming Obstacles in Journalism.

Dr Giuliana Tiripelli and Dr Gurvinder Aujla-Sidhu presented the results of their work on decolonising the curriculum of journalism through peace journalism practice at DMU, for the Future of Journalism conference (23 September). This paper illustrated the approach developed in the modules of the new journalism programme led by Gurvinder.

Professor Stuart Price gave a paper entitled ‘Insurrection! The Capitol Riot, 6 January 2021: journalistic hyperbole, the ‘post-truth’ myth, and the democracy/state conflation’, at the Future of Journalism Conference, 22 September 2021.

Abstract extract: this illustrated paper interrogates the discursive framework within which the Capitol incursion of 6 January 2021 was presented. It argues that the predominant narrativisation of the event by ‘mainstream’ liberal US/UK media – as an ‘insurrection’, an assault on ‘the seat of democracy’, and even as a form of ‘domestic terrorism’ – reinforced the notion that the democratic order and its supposed adherence to Truth, was somehow fragile and in need of reconstruction. The liberal goal was therefore the discursive/material recovery of democratic norms, after their supposed degradation under the regimen of Trump.  

Professor Jason Lee’s paper, ‘Facebook, Paedophile Hunters, and Surveillance – Mediated Transnational Abuse’, has been published in The Journal of New Media and Culture,Vol. 12 Issue 1, Special Issue: Facebook Studies, Summer 2021.

Abstract: Facebook and paedophile hunter groups in the UK, US, and India are examined. QAnon is studied and how Facebook has aided their strength. The notion of the hunt is explored in the UK and India where hoaxes are common. Financial incentives and dataveillance are analyzed. Theological paradigms are extrapolated in terms of cultural theory and capital with the recognition surveillance leads to pre-determination and the eradication of the human.

Dr Ben Harbisher’s chapter ‘Nudge: Behavioural Science, Normative Discourse, and the Art of Consent’ appears in Governing Human Lives and Health in Pandemic Times (Routledge, 2022).

Media Discourse Centre’s Four Book Launch

You are most welcome to attend the Media Discourse Centre’s Four Book Launch on June 30th at 2pm (London time):

Zoom Meeting: 

Meeting ID: 894 6526 5620.

The four authors are long-standing MDC members and research associates, and we are very pleased to see the publication of their new books. Each author will talk for 10/15 minutes, and there will be an opportunity to ask questions. Thanks to moral support from the Meccsa Social Movements Network and the Documentary Media Centre, Leicester.


1. Gurvinder Aujla-Sidhu – BBC Asian Network: the cultural production of diversity

2. Max Hanska – Communication against Domination: ideas of justice from the printing press to algorithmic media

3. Tanya Lokot – Beyond the Protest Square: digital media and augmented dissent

4. Fernanda Amaral – Voices from the Favelas: media activism and counter-narratives from below

No registration is needed but the event is limited to the first 100 who will access it.

Best wishes,

Stuart Price and Giuliana Tiripelli, MDC – Chairs of the event.

Talk: Professor Klaus Bruhn Jensen

Professor Klaus Bruhn Jensen: “What communication is, ought to be, and could be”

As part of the PostGraduate Research Student Conference, we would like to invite all interested parties to a talk given by Professor Klaus Bruhn Jensen.

Date23 June 2020 from 10.45am to 11.15am (NOTE: TEAMS LINK IS TO WHOLE EVENT – our talk starts at 10.45am)

TalkWhat communication is, ought to be, and could be – communication and justice in digital media

Speaker: Professor Klaus Bruhn Jensen (Professor in the Department of Media, Cognition, and Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark)

Introduced by: Dr Giuliana Tiripelli MDC, and Professor Stuart Price, MDC.


Speaker bio:

Klaus Bruhn Jensen is Professor in the Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. His research and teaching emphasize communication theory, empirical research methodologies, and the history of media and communication. Current projects focus on internet use in different regions of the world and on normative theories of communication. Recent publications includethe International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy (Wiley-Blackwell, 2016, 4 vols and online), A Handbook of Media and Communication Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies (Routledge, 3rd edition, 2021), A Theory of Communication of Justice (Routledge, 2021), and Media Convergence: The Three Degrees of Network, Mass, and Interpersonal Communication (Routledge, 2nd edition, forthcoming 2022). He is a recipient of the Royal Danish Order of Dannebrog, an elected member of Academia Europaea, Life Member for Service of the Association of Internet Researchers, and a Fellow of the International Communicology Institute. 

International Women’s Day event

Media Discourse Centre: International Women’s Day event, Monday 8th March, 14:00–16:00

Transnational Feminist Activism – plus discussion with Q&A.

Contributions from: Media Discourse Centre and the Meccsa Social Movements Network


  • Dr Ruth Sanz Sabido (CCCU Canterbury): From Private to Public  and Political: Breastfeeding, Sorority and Feminism

Ruth will describe her online ethnography of a women’s support group. 

  • Professor Stuart Price (De Montfort University): the Huelga General Feminista, Spain, 2017-20.

Stuart will give an account of a two-year study of the Spanish Feminist General Strike. 

  • M. Giovanna Miralles Terán de Wilkin (CCCU): What’s in it for us?

A critical reflection on Maya women studies.

Giovanna will reveal how Maya women are organising within post-civil war Guatemala. 

  •  Dr Rinella Cere – ‘8 Marzo’ and the ‘Subaltern that cannot Speak’

Rinella will discuss the Italian ‘8 Marzo’ movement, of which she was part,  and contextualises her experience with reference to the theories of Gayatri Spivak. 

Hosted by the Documentary Media Centre  

Facilitator: John Coster 

Platform: Zoom (part recorded + live stream)

Zoom Details
Meeting ID: 890 7868 2067 Passcode: 958014

PhD candidates: DMU Full Bursary Scholarships

The Media Discourse Centre at De Montfort University welcomes applications from prospective PhD candidates who wish to obtain DMU Full Bursary Scholarships. As a research collective dedicated to the critical analysis of the contemporary social order, with a particular emphasis on the global character of mediated communication, MDC’s work encompasses a wide range of research projects, including: protest cultures and social movements, narratives of collective identity (class, gender and ethnicity), progressive models of journalism, communal social media use, investigative journalism (in partnership with the Channel Four/De Montfort MA team), the politics of technology, critical studies of narrative and discourse, surveillance studies, and race and the postcolonial. 

The Centre would, therefore, encourage submissions from applicants interested in developing interdisciplinary research that is both theoretically sophisticated and methodologically innovative, in critical fields related to media representation and framing, mediated activism, and/or radical interventions in the (re)composition of public narratives. These forms of enquiry could include critiques of national, transnational, or regional cultures and communicative practices, international initiatives (like the UNSDGs), as well as studies of resistance to disciplinary, myopic or repressive discourses.

Candidates applying to the Media Discourse Centre ( should, in the first instance, submit a research proposal of 750 words (maximum) to Professor Stuart Price, at, marked ‘MDC/DMU Bursary’, and should be accompanied by a CV. The material should be received by noon on Monday, 24thFebruary. If notified of acceptance, the candidate will be encouraged to make a comprehensive application to, clearly marked with MDC and the suggested supervisory team, by the deadline of 9th March 2020. Full details and the application form can be accessed at  

The proposal should encompass the following elements:

o          title of project 

o          the primary goal of the research (hypothesis/problematic) in one paragraph

o          original contribution to knowledge 

o          theoretical perspective/position adopted within the project 

o          research methods suited to the successful completion of the thesis 

o          alignment with MDC and potential supervisors (

Best wishes

Stuart Price
Professor of Media and Political Discourse

Talk: An analysis of misrepresentation in best-selling British magazines.

Monday 17th February, 4pm, DMU Clephan 3.01

This research-based talk presents the shocking reality of misrepresentation in best-selling British magazines.

Eventbrite link:

There is a powerful relationship between gender and social inequality. Unequivocally, magazines play an important role in perpetuating stereotypes that fail to represent society. This misrepresentation impacts on females’ self-perception and helps to maintain socioeconomic disparities.

In Brazil, for example, the majority of the population is non-white, but magazines frequently display more white and blond females, reinforcing a colonised Eurocentric idealisation of beauty. The same ethnic disparity happens in the UK: there are more flamingos on the cover pages than black women. In addition, the glossy publications reinforce exclusively Eurocentric aesthetics and misogynistic behaviour, portraying conservative roles connected to motherhood and heteronormative marriages.

When the cover girls represent any sort of diversity, they are automatically forced to act as ambassadors of a cause: overweight women must talk about health; non-white models must defy racism. The misrepresentation affects minorities in the same way it discriminates diverse body formats (size, shape, gender, sexual orientation, disabilities, etc) and, in general, only skinny white cisgender-able females are representatives of success and/or beauty.

Universities, magazines, and everyone in the media industry has the responsibility to join this debate and work to change the scenario. This event is a promotion of the Media Discourse Centre at De Montfort University Leicester in partnership with the University of Derby, sponsored by the Association of Journalism Education and the British Academy – Newton Fund.


Dr Ivana Ebel is a senior lecturer in Journalism at the University of Derby working with undergraduate, masters, and PhD students. She has broad international experience and holds a PhD in Communication and Media Sciences (Leipzig University – Germany); a Masters in Digital Media (Bremen University – Germany); a Bachelor in Communication Sciences – Journalism (Univali, Itajaí – Brazil), and a Post-Graduate Certificate in Higher Education (PGCertHe – University of Derby – UK). Ivana Ebel started lecturing in Brazil back in 2005. Since then, she has worked and lived in different countries, mixing academic activities with industry engagements. Her research is concentrated on media convergence, digital storytelling, visual rhetoric, mobile media consumption and fake news. She is multilingual and has more than two decades of industry experience in print media, web content, broadcasting, public relations, both in private and governmental positions, especially working as an international journalist.

Dr Gabrielle Bittelbrun is a media researcher and journalist, currently working for the Federation of Industries of Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil. She is an experienced lecturer with a PhD in Literature (Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil), and spent a semester researching in partnership with the University of Minho, in Portugal. She also has a Masters in Journalism (Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil); and a Bachelor in Communication Sciences – Journalism (University of the State of São Paulo – Unesp, Bauru, Brazil). She has been working in academic research since 2007, funded by well-known Brazilian agencies such as Fapesp and Capes. In addition, her research – partially represented in this presentation – received a mobility grant from the British Academy through the Newton Fund. Her work is focused on feminism, gender, race, and women’s magazines. Gabrielle Bittelbrun is the author of the recently published book Colours and contours: gender and race in Brazilian women’s magazines. She is a member of the research group Literatual at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, working mostly with topics related to feminist and post-colonial contemporary narratives.

Tiania Stevens ‘The Ethics of Investigative Journalism

The Media Discourse Centre presents journalist and war reporter Tiania Stevens 

Tiania Stevens ‘The Ethics of Investigative Journalism: 

four case studies’

Monday January 13th, Clephan 3.01, 4pm

Link for tickets:

MDC Twitter:

About this Event

The Ethics of Investigative Journalism: four case studies

Tiania Stevens gives an account of her career as a journalist, which included time spent as an embedded reporter during the Iraq war. 

Tiania is in the last stages of a Ph.D. in the School of Communication and Arts at the University of Queensland. Her thesis (‘Approaching Lives in the Aftermath: Journalism and the empathetic representations of Bosnian Muslim male testimonies of life after the concentration camps’) engages with questions and problems concerning humanitarian journalism in the media representation of camp survivors of the war in Bosnia in the 1990s.

Training in journalism at the Queensland University of Technology, Tiania worked as a a journalist in Australia, throughout Africa, Europe, and the United Kingdom. She is an experienced defence reporter, traveling with Coalition forces (US and UK) during the campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, during which she worked from several countries in the Middle East, filing stories for a number of national UK publications, including the London Times. Outside theatres of war, she has extensive professional journalist experience of the Balkans, particularly Bosnia, a country she has visited for both journalistic and academic purposes almost every year since 1999. Tiania has also conducted a wide range of undercover investigative journalism stories for national publications.

Tiania completed a Master’s degree in War Studies at King’s College, University of London, before taking up her doctoral studies. For the last five years, she has taught journalism at Queensland University of Technology (QUT), covering topics including international, ethics, journalistic inquiry, investigations, computational, news writing and online journalism.

Media Discourse Centre Publications

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Amaral, Fernanda (2019) ‘Violence and impunity in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas: citizens, smartphones and police malpractice’in Journalism, Power and Investigation: global and activist perspectives, in Price, Stuart (editor), London and New York: Routledge.

Amaral, Fernanda (2016) ‘It’s Not Just 20 Cents’: how social networks helped mobilise Brazilians against injustice’, in Price, Stuart, and Sanz Sabido, Ruth, Sites of Protest, London and New York: Rowman and Littlefield International.

Armour, Zoe (2018), ‘Dedicated Followers of PaSSion (1995 – present): seasoned clubbers and the mediation of collective memory as a process of ‘Digital Gift-Giving’, in Bennett, Andy, Hardy, Anne, and Robards, B. Eds. (2018), Neo Tribes: Consumption, Leisure and Tourism, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Armour, Zoe (2018) ‘Verbal Sound System (1997-1998): the memory of a Raver’s DiY practices in the British free party counterculture’, in Bennett, Andy and Guerra, P. Eds. (2018), DiY Cultures and Underground Music Scenes. London and New York: Routledge.

Aujla-Sidhu, Gurvinder (2017) How to serve British Asian communities? The dilemmas facing the BBC’, in the Radio Journal: International Studies in Broadcast & Audio Media, 15 (1) ,pp.107-124.

Aujla-Sidhu, Gurvinder (2016) ‘Public Service Broadcasting: the challenge of representing ethnic minority audiences’, For(E)Dialogue, 1 (1), pp. 40-51. 

Bahiya, Ahmed (2019) ‘Surviving the Sectarian Divide: investigative journalism in the quagmire of Iraq’, in Journalism, Power and Investigation: global and activist perspectives, edited by Price, Stuart. London and New York: Routledge.

Chao, Jenifer (2018) ‘Cultural Resistance, 9/11 and the War on Terror: Sensible Interventions’, London: Routledge. 

Chao, Jenifer (2018) ‘Faces of the Enemy: Visualising the Taliban in a Photography Studio’, Media, War & Conflict Online First.

Chao, Jenifer (2016) The Ignorant Hip-Hop Artist? Political Rap Encounters Jacques Rancière’, Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies 30.6: 754-763.

Chao, Jenifer (2015) ‘Oppositional Banality: Watching Ordinary Muslims in Little Mosque on the Prairie’, NECSUS European Journal of Media Studies 4.1: 27-45. 

Checchi, Marco (2016) Book Review: ‘Why this is not a resistant era-Caygill’s philosophical visit to the archive of resistance’, Organization, 23 (1), pp. 140-143.

Checchi, Marco (2014) ‘Spotting the Primacy of Resistance in the Virtual Encounter of Foucault and Deleuze’, in Foucault Studies, (18), pp.197-212.

Danbury, Richard (2019) ‘Is There a Global Norm of Freedom journalists’ source protection?’ In: Bollinger L., and Callamard, A.(eds), ‘Regardless of Frontiers? Global Norms on Freedom of Expression’. New York: Columbia University Press.

Danbury, Richard (2019) ‘Freedom of Expression and Protecting Journalists’ Sources’, in Bollinger, L and Callamard, A (eds), Regardless of Frontiers? Freedom of Expression and Information in the 21st Century, Columbia University Press.

Danbury, Richard (2019) ‘Investigative Journalism and Terrorism: the proactive legal duty to report’, in Price, Stuart (ed), Journalism, Power and Investigation: global and activist perspectives, London and New York: Routledge.

Danbury, Richard and Townend, Judith (2019) ‘Can You Keep a Secret? legal and technological obstacles to protecting journalistic sources’, in Price, Stuart (editor), Journalism, Power and Investigation: global and activist perspectives, London and New York: Routledge.

Danbury, Richard ‘Where Should Speech be Free? Conceiving Liberal theories of free speech’, in Price, M and N Stremlau Speech and Society in the Digital Age, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  

Townend, Judith and Danbury, Richard (2017) ‘Protecting Sources and Whistleblowers in a Digital Age’, Information Law and Policy Centre, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, supported by Guardian News and Media. Report available at: 

Hänska, Max (2016) ‘Networked communication and the Arab Spring: linking broadcast and social media’, in New Media & Society, January 2016 vol. 18 no. 1 99-116  

Hänska, Max and Bode, M. (2018) ‘How the Ubiquity of Eyewitness Media Changes the Mediation and Visibility of Protests in the News’, in Robertson, A. (Ed.) Screening Protest: Visual Narratives of Dissent across Time, Space and Genre, Abingdon: Routledge. 

Hänska,Max, and Bauchowitz, S (2018) “#ThisIsACoup and Greece’s Bailout: Geo-mapping the emergence of a hashtag across Europe’s twittersphere” Laura Basu, Steve Schifferes and Sophie Knowles (eds.) The Media and Austerity: Comparative Perspectives, London: Routledge, pp. 248-261

Hänska, Max and Bauchowitz, S. (2017) ‘Tweeting for Brexit: how social media influenced the Referendum’, in Brexit, Trump and the Media, edited by John Mair, Tor Clark, Raymond Snoddy, and Richard Tait, Suffolk: Abramis, pp. 31–35.

Harbisher, Ben (2019) Researching the Deep State: Surveillance, Politics, and Dissent. In: Price, S. ed. Journalism, Power and Investigation: global and activist perspectives. London and New York: Routledge.

Harbisher, Ben (2016) ‘The Million Mask March: language, legitimacy, and dissent’, in Critical Discourse Studies, Special Journal Issue on Media and Protest, Sanz Sabido, Ruth and Price, Stuart: Taylor and Francis. 

Harbisher, Ben (2016) ‘Unthinking Extremism: Britain’s Fusion Intelligence Complex and the Radicalizing Narratives that Legitimize Surveillance’, in Surveillance & Society 13(3/4): 474-486, 201. 

Harbisher, Ben (2012) ‘Radicals, revolutionaries and misanthropes, towards a brief genealogy of public order and surveillance in Nottingham, c 1200-2012’, in Hard Times, n92, pp. 9-15.

Hayward, David (2019) ‘Online news video, Collaboration and social networks: the disruption of the media industry’, in Journalism, Power and Investigation: global and activist perspectives, edited by Price, Stuart. London and New York: Routledge.

Kamenou, Nayia (2019) ‘Sexuality, gender and the (re) making of modernity and nationhood in Cyprus’, Women’s Studies International Forum, vol 74.

Kamenou, Nayia (2019) ‘Difficult Intersections: Nation(alism) and the LGBTIQ Movement in Cyprus’, in: Intersectionality in Feminist and Queer Movements: Confronting Privileges, edited by Eléonore Lépinard and Elizabeth Evans. London and New York: Routledge

Kamenou, Nayia (2016) ‘Sexual Politics – Party Politics: The Rules of Engagement in the Case of Cyprus’, in Party-Society Relations in the Republic of Cyprus: Political and Societal Strategies (Routledge Advances in Mediterranean Studies), Charalambous, Giorgos and Christophorou, Christophoros, London and New York: Routledge.

Kamenou, Nayia (2015) Women and Gender in Cypriot Films: (Re) claiming Agency amidst the Discourses of its Negation’, in Cypriot Cinemas: Memory, Conflict, and Identity in the Margins of Europe(Topics and Issues in National Cinema), edited by Constantinides, Costas and Papadakis, Yiannis, New York and London: Bloomsbury.

Kamenou, Nayia (2014) Vote for Your Rights: Voting Trends of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Queer Community: Results Report: 2nd Part of the Research (Postelectoral) July 2014. Athens: Colour Youth & Athens Pride, available at:

Lee, Jason (2018) Nazism and Neo-Nazism in film and media, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. 

Lee, Jason (2017) Sex Robots – the future of desire. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 

Lee, Jason (2017) ‘The Devil you don’t know? The rise and fall and rise of Linda Blair’, in O’Connor, J. and Mercer, J. (eds) Childhood and Celebrity, Taylor and Francis.

Lee, Jason (2017) Burning Box. Eyewear Publishing.

Lee, Jason (2013) The Psychology of Screenwriting, Bloomsbury Academic 

Lee, Jason (2012) Cultures of Addiction, Cambria Press.

Lee, Jason (2012) ‘The Zoo Keeper’s Strife: Will Self’s Psychiatric Fictions’, Philosophy and Literature, Volume 36, Number 1, April 2012, 196-208.

Lee,Jason (2005) Pervasive Perversion: Paedophilia and Child Sexual Abuse in Media/Culture. Free Association Books.

Pasternak, Gil and Ziętkiewicz, M. (2017) ‘Beyond the Familial Impulse: Domestic Photography and Sociocultural History in Post-communist Poland, 1989-1996’, Photography & Culture 10 (2), Special Issue: Seeing Family, pp. 121-145.

Pasternak, Gil (2014) ‘Intimate Conflicts: Foregrounding the Radical Politics of Family Photographs’, in Sheehan, Tanya, ed. Photography, History, Difference. University Press of New England.

Pasternak, Gil (2013) ‘“The Brownies in Palestina”: politicizing geographies in family photographs.’ Photography and Culture, 6 (1), pp. 41-64.

Pasternak, Gil. (2013) ‘Photographic Histories, Actualities, Potentialities: Amateur Photography as Photographic Historiography’, in Pollen, Annebella and Juliet Baillie, eds. Reconsidering Amateur Photography. As part of Either/And, Online commissioned essay series for the National Media Museum.

Price, Stuart (forthcoming 2020) Corbyn and the Media: Power, ‘Extremism’ and Contested Events. London and New York: Routledge.

Price, Stuart (2019) Journalism, Power and Investigation: global and activist perspectives, (editor) London and New York: Routledge. 

Price, Stuart (2018) ‘Resistance and Revolution: working-class intransigence, the libertarian tradition, and Spanish history’, in Fishwick, Adam and Connolly, Heather [editors] Austerity and Working-Class Resistance, London and New York: Rowman and Littlefield International. 

Price, Stuart (2017) ‘The Event of Terrorism: ambiguous categories and public spectacle’, in Television & New Media

Price, Stuart (2017) ‘Populism, “Community” and Political Culture: the revenge of the liberal elite’, in Sanz Sabido, Ruth [editor] Representing Communities, Palgrave Macmillan.

Sabido, Ruth Sanz and Price, Stuart (2017) ‘Anti-austerity protests, Brexit and Britishness in the news’, in Media Representations of Anti-Austerity Protests in the EU: Grievances, Identities and Agency, Routledge, pp. 143-162.

Price, Stuart and Sanz Sabido, Ruth [editors] (2016) Sites of Protest, Rowman and Littlefield International.

Sanz Sabido, Ruth, Price, Stuart, and Quílez Esteve, L (2016) Special Journal Issue on ‘The Spanish Civil War 80 years on: discourse, memory and the media’, Catalan Journal of Communication: Intellect Press. 

Sanz Sabido, Ruth and Price, Stuart (2016) Critical Discourse Studies, Special Journal Issue on ‘Media and Protest’, Taylor and Francis.

Sanz Sabido, Ruth and Price, Stuart (2016) ‘The Ladders Revolution: material struggle, social media and news coverage’, in Critical Discourse Studies, 13(3), pp.247-260.

Price, Stuart and Sanz Sabido, Ruth [editors] (2015) Contemporary Protest and the Legacy of Dissent, Rowman and Littlefield International.

Price, Stuart (2015) ‘The Legacy of Dissent: class, gender and austerity’ in Price, S and Sanz Sabido, R [editors] London and New York: Rowman and Littlefield International

Price, Stuart (2015) ‘Calls to Order: ‘anarchy’, riots and state repression’ in Price, S and Sanz Sabido, R [editors] Contemporary Protest and the Legacy of Dissent, London and New York: Rowman and Littlefield International. 

Price, Stuart (2011) Worst-case Scenario? Governance, mediation, and the security regime, Zed Books, London and New York.

Protest, Media and Culture, book series, Rowman and Littlefield International

Tiripelli, Giuliana (2019) ‘Punishment, legitimacy and taste: the role and limits of mainstream and social media in constructing attitudes towards community sanctions, in Crime, Media and Culture

Tiripelli, Giuliana (2018) with Happer C., McGuinness P., McNeill F. ‘Punishment, legitimacy and taste: the role and limits of mainstream and social media in constructing attitudes towards community sanctions’, Crime, Media, Culture, First Published online